Electronic Newsletter for the History of Astronomy - Number 11

*                                                                         *
*                                                                         *
*      Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy        *
*                  in the Astronomische Gesellschaft                      *
*                                                                         *
*                   Number 11,  September 22, 1995                        *
*                                                                         *
*                           A translation of                              *
*                                                                         *
*                        Nr. 11,  27. Juni 1995                           *
*                                                                         *
*          Edited by: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick           *
*                                                                         *
*      Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <76450.1741@CompuServe.COM>   *
*                                                                         *


1. Lutz D. Schmadel:
   Minor Planet 4775 named in memory of Peter Andreas Hansen

2. Commemorative medals for astronomers

3. Museums, exhibits, and memorials

4. Meeting of the Working Group for the History of Astronomy at Bonn

5. Meeting on the occasion of the 200th birthday of Peter Andreas Hansen

6. Conference calendar 1995

7. New books



Addendum by the Translator / Space Calendar - July 1995

Item 1                                            ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995

Minor Planet 4775 named in memory of Peter Andreas Hansen

by Lutz D. Schmadel, Heidelberg

The Minor Planet with the preliminary designation 1927TC, found by Max Wolf
on 3 October 1927 at Heidelberg-Koenigsstuhl, has recently received the
designation (4775) Hansen in memory of Peter Andreas Hansen (1795-1874),
leading theoretical astronomer of the nineteenth century, on the occasion
of the 200th anniversary of his birth. Born in Tondern, Schleswig, he
became director of the Seeberg Observatory near Gotha {see planet (1346)
in 1825. His most important work was the improvement of the theories and
tables of the orbits of the principal bodies in the solar system. Hansen's
lunar theory -- yielding a very accurate new value of the astronomical unit
-- was used for the Nautical Almanac until 1922. He invented the method of
perturbations in coordinates. Simon Newcomb (see planet 855), who
continued his work, considered Hansen the greatest master of celestial
mechanics since Laplace {see planet (4628)}. The name was proposed by
L.K.Kristensen and endorsed by L.D.Schmadel.

Item 2                                            ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995

Commemorative medals for astronomers

The Sparkasse Plauen has offered, through a special pressing, a medal to
honor Georg Samuel Doerffel (1643-1688). The front side displays a
portrait of the priest / astronomer and the flip side depicts the Doerffel
memorial in Plauen. The press has produced 500 medals in fine silver,
which will be offered to the public at DM 55, and there will also be 15
medals offered in fine gold, at DM 850. Diameter of the medal is 35 mm.
Address of the savings bank: Sparkasse Plauen, Bahnhofstr. 61, 
D-08523 Plauen, Germany, Fax# 03741/2900-312

To commemorate the centre and the castle of the village Prohlis (today
belonging to Dresden) after it's unfortunate demolition in 1975 and 1985,
resp., a medal has been produced by the Dresdner Bank and the Museum at
Prohlis. The front side displays the farm which was saved from the
demolition with the castle's tower in the background. On the reverse side
there is a depiction of the farmer / astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch
(1723-1788). It has been produced in pure silver, for DM 35.00 (with case
DM 40.00), and in pewter, with case DM 8.00; diameter of the medal is 
30 mm.
Address: Heimat- and Palitzsch-Museum Prohlis, Gamigstrasse 24, 
D-01239 Dresden, Germany

Item 3                                            ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995

Museums, exhibits, and memorials

The William Herschel Museum in Bath, England, houses itself in the former
abode of the astronomer, where he discovered the planet Uranus in 1781.
Address: 19, New King Street, Bath, BA1 2BL, U.K., Phone (0225) 311342
Opening hours: March until October daily, November through February only
on Sat / Sun, 2pm - 5pm.

The exhibit rooms of the Royal Photographic Society in Bath, England, are
displaying treasures from the archives of the society, for example, the
very first photograph, cameras and other material from the early period of
photography, among these also items from John Herschel.
Address: Milsom Street, Bath BA1 1 DN, U.K., Phone (0225) 462841
Opening hours: Daily, 9.30am - 5.30pm

The astronomy department in the Deutsches Museum at Munich was enhanced
through a new exhibit for amateur astronomy, and through the exhibit of an
original 7.5 m radio telescope of the type "Wuerzburg Riese" in the
museum's open-air area after 3 years of restoration work. After 1945, the
field of radioastronomy became operational with telescopes of this type.
The telescope on display has observed radio waves from the sky at
Dwingeloo, the Netherlands, up until the 1960's. Together with two other
radio telescopes of similar type, it was able to detect the spiral
structure of the Milky Way, and to investigate it thoroughly (1954).  In
addition, solar radio signals were also explored, e.g., during bursts of
the solar corona (1961). The name "Wuerzburg Riese" is a German code word
from the Second World War for a radar instrument, which included besides
other parts of the device (transmitter, receiver, etc.) a parabolic

The cartographic department of the Staatsbibliothek (State Library) at
Berlin displays several terrestrial and celestial globes. Among them are
two celestial globes by Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (Nuernberg 1730), and by
Carl Ferdinand Welland (Weimar 1831-32).
Address: Staatsbibliothek, Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Haus 2,
Potsdamer Str. 33, D-10785 Berlin, Germany, Phone (030) 266-2839/2838
Opening hours of the cartographic department: Mon - Fri 9am - 5pm, 
Sat 9am - 1pm

During a visit of the Castle Eltz near Wierschem, Kreis (district)
Mayen-Koblenz (Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany), one should pay attention in
the Schatzkammer (treasury) also to the astronomical ornamental
instruments: three small terrestrial, planetary, and celestial globes by
Abraham Drentwett II (Augsburg around 1685), sculpted from the figures of
Hercules, Chronos and Atlas. They are made of silver, and partly overlaid
with gold. Their total hight is approximately 22 cm. There is also an
equatorial table sundial with a minute hand, which belonged to the
collection of Philipp Carl of Eltz (1665-1743), Kurfuerst (prince elector)
of Mainz and Reichs-Erzkanzler (arch-chancellor of the German Reich). The
sundial, in the exhibit falsely called a sextant, was put together in
Dresden around 1735.
Literature about the globes: Werner Kummer, Liste alter Globen ...
In: Der Globusfreund 28-29 (1980) p. 67, 31/32 (1983) 15, 40/41 (1992) 89.

On the 22nd of August 1995 at 4pm the redesigned department "History of
Surveying" was reopened in the Museum fuer Kunst und Kulturgeschichte
(Museum of Art and Cultural History) in Dortmund, Germany (Hansastr. 3).
It includes also interesting items from the history of astronomy (cf.
Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte No. 4, p. 3).
The new opening hours are: Tues - Sun 10am - 5pm.

The London Science Museum is displaying on a 100 sq. m floor space an
exhibit portraying the development of the mirror telescope in the 19th
century (metal mirrors and early glass mirrors). Among the items is a
model of the famous telescope of the observatory Birr Castle, in Ireland,
the diameter of which measured 1.80 m.  Also on display is an original
metal mirror by William Parsons, Third Earl of Rosse (1800-1867).

With the title "400 years of Mercator - 400 years of atlases" the
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library) of Munich presented
from the depths of its collections from the 5th of April until the 1st of
July 1995 an exhibit dedicated to the history of the atlas from the
beginnings up until the satellite-based atlas, and also including the
development of star atlases.
For additional information: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Ludwigstr. 16,
Muenchen, Phone: 089/286380, Fax: 089/2368293.

"...  und sie bewegt sich doch - Astronomie im alten Buch" ("... and they
*are* in movement - astronomy in old books") was the title of an exhibit of
the University Library of Augsburg in the Stadtsparkasse Augsburg,
Halderstr. 3, from the 30th of May up until the 14th of July 1995.

The Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum (German Museum of Shipping) at Bremerhaven
invited from 6 May to 10 September 1995 to the exhibit "From sailors to
astronauts - navigation from 1500 to 2000".
Address: Van-Ronzelen-Str., D-27568 Bremerhaven, Germany

"The World in Your Hands" was an exhibit of the Museum Boerhaave at Leiden,
The Netherlands, from 18 March to 24 September 1995. Catalogue in English:
Dfl 40.00, Supplement (vignettes of the globes) Dfl 5.00.

"The Earth & the Heavens - The Art of the Mapmaker" is an exhibit by the
British Library Galleries in the British Museum (Great Russell, London,
WC1) from the 7th of July until the 22th of October 1995. Among the items
are numerous celestial charts. Catalogue: Peter Whitfield, The Mapping of
the Heavens, British Library, [1995, in print]. Peter Whitfield, The
Image of the World, British Library, 1994. For further information in the
WWW: http://portico.bl.uk/exhibitions/maps/overview.html

"100 Jahre Roentgenstrahlen" ("100 years of X-rays") is the name of the
exhibit of the Julius Maximilians University at Wuerzburg, Germany, which
will be on display from the 14th February until the 19th of November 1995
in the Martin von Wagner Museum (Southern wing of the Residenz). Besides
displays about W.C.Roentgen and his discovery also X-ray astronomy is 
Opening hours: daily 10am to 6pm, closed on Mondays.  
Catalogue to the exhibit: DM 28.00.
Address for further information: Geschaeftsstelle fuer das Roentgenjahr, 
Sanderrring 2, D-97070 Wuerzburg, Tel. 0931/51573, Fax 0931/17840,
e-mail address: planung@zv.uni-wuerzburg. 
The Physikalisches Institut of the University, Am Hubland, displays more
items from the Nachlass of Roentgen.  Opened Monday to Friday.

In order to celebrate the 500th birthday of Peter Apian an exhibit is on
display in the Stadtmuseum (city museum) at Ingolstadt, Germany, from the
7th of October and will continue up until the end of November 1995. It
portrays Apian as mathematician, book-printer, publisher, geographer,
cartographer, astronomer, university instructor, collector of inscriptions,
builder of instruments, publisher of a book on physics, friend of the
Kaiser, "Hofmarksherr" and "Pfalzgraf" (Count Palatine). Included in the
components of the exhibition is the Astronomicum Caesareum, a master piece
in the art of printing.
Address: Auf der Schanz 45, D-85049 Ingolstadt, Phone 0841/305-1905. 
Opening hours: Tues - Sat 9am - 12am and 1pm - 5pm /  Sun 10am - 5pm
There will be an anniversary edition including an exhibits catalogue.

The Norman Lockyer Observatory in Sidmouth, England, holds several
historical instruments such as a 10 inch refractor with a 12 inch
photographic tube by Howard Grubb (Dublin). The observatory was founded by
Sir Norman Lockyer (1836 - 1920) in the year 1912 and served up until 1961
astrophysical research. Since 1989 it has been used as a people's
observatory. Fall 1995 will signify the opening of a new building, which
will include a larger planetarium. There will also be an exhibit room
dedicated to Lockyer and especially focusing upon his spectroscopic
Address:  Salcombe Hill, Sidmouth, Devon EX10 0NY, U.K.

In Linz, where Johannes Kepler lived from 1611 until 1626, there has
existed since 1957 on the facade of the Altes Rathaus (old town hall) a
medaillon with the portrait of the astronomer. The building is presently
going through a renovation and revitilization. The Austrian
Bundesdenkmalamt (Federal Department for Preservation of Historic
Monuments) has not yet decided, whether or not the medallion will be placed
up on the side of the Rathaus again after the restorations. - When one
visits Linz one should also pay attention to the astronomical clock on the
tower of the Altes Rathaus, as well as to a memorial tablet which stems
from the year 1943. The latter is displayed over the entrance to the house
(Rathausgasse 5) in which Johann Kepler once lived in 1625. On the
occasion of Kepler's 400th birthday in 1971 the octagonal pavilion with a
statue of Johann Kepler was re-errected in the park at Roemerstrasse
(between the castle's museum entrance and Martins church). Formerly the
pavilion was standing at another place. The statue is a copy of the wooden
plastic in the hallway of the observatory Kremsmuenster. In addition, the
Hochschule (college) of Linz has officially been named the "Alma mater
Kepleriana" the same year. Also, in Linz there is a street named after
Kepler ("Keplergasse").
(Sources: Martin Schwarzbach, "Auf den Spuren unserer Naturforscher",
Stuttgart 1981; Fritz Mayrhofer, "Linz", Wien und Muenchen 1984; WWW:
letter by Senatsrat Dr. Mayrhofer, Archiv der Stadt Linz, of 2 May 1995)

On the 17th of June, 1995 the Bund Deutscher Vermessungsingenieure,
Landesgruppe Thueringen, and the Deutscher Verein fuer Vermessungswesen,
Landesverband Thueringen, invited for the unveiling of a memorial in memory
of Peter Andreas Hansen on the Grosser Inselsberg (the highest mountain of
the Thueringer Wald). This plaque should serve for the commemoration about
the merits of the astronomer and geodesist for the triangulation in the
Herzogtum Gotha.

Item 4                                            ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995

Meeting of the Working Group for the History of Astronomy at Bonn

The Meeting of the Working Group within the framework of the Fall Meeting
of the Astronomische Gesellschaft took place on the 18th of September, 1995
in Bonn. The meeting and lectures began at 2pm. As in previous years,
short summarys of the lectures are published in AG Abstract Series (No.
11, 1995).  

The place where the conference took place was the old observatory between
Poppelsdorfer Allee, the Argelanderstrasse, and Bonner Talweg, not far from
the main train station. This was built between 1840 and 1846. Karl
Friedrich Schinkel took part in it's planning and construction.
Unfortunately, it is not used by astronomers today. Just the separate dome
is occupied by the Bonn People's Observatory. During the morning of the
18th of September there was a possibility to view the historic instruments
of the old observatory (among them the heliometer, which is nearly
identical to the famous heliometer of Bessel) which are on display at the
Astronomical Institutes of the University in Bonn-Endenich, Auf dem Huegel

During a stay at Bonn, one can visit the grave of Argelander at the Old
Cemetary, and that of Felix Hausdorff at the old Poppelsdorf Cemetary.
To be seen is also the Alter Zoll (Old Customs), a platform which looks out
over the Rhein River, where Argelander built his first provisional
pavilion for observations of the stars.

Information on this conference are available on the World Wide Web at the 
following address:

Item 5                                            ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995

Meeting on the occasion of the 200th birthday of Peter Andreas Hansen

Gotha, September 16-17, 1995

A common meeting of the society Historische Sternwarten Gotha e.V., the
Akademie gemeinnuetziger Wissenschaften zu Erfurt and the Working Group for
the History of Astronomy.

Saturday, 16 Sept., 2:30 PM
Place: Arnoldischule (Staatl. Gymnasium Gotha), Eisenacher Str. 5

M. Strumpf: The Biography

O. Schwarz: The archival situation

W. R. Dick: Otto Struve on the relationship of Argelander and Hansen

J. Kiefert: The Erfurt Academy of Sciences and astronomy - 
   Accomplishments and possibilities

R. Bien: The celestial mechanic

H. Lenhardt: Hansen and geodesy

H.-J. Kummer: Timekeepers and time measurements


Sunday, 17 Sept., 9.30 AM
Meeting point: Southerly entrance to the yard in the castle Friedenstein 
(parking place)

Observatory at Jaegerstrasse; Cartographic Museum; Research Library; 
Seeberg (place of the old observatory)

Contact address: Manfred Strumpf, Heinoldsgasse 10, D-99867 Gotha,
Tel.: 03621-402 485

Information on this conference are available on the World Wide Web at the 
following address:

Item 6                                            ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995

Conference Calendar 1995

July, Chetumal, Mexico
Third International Mayanists Congress, including a session on Mayan
astronomy and calendrics
Chairman: Stanislaw Iwaniszewski, Mexico City

3 - 8 July, Paris, France
IAU Symposium 172: Dynamics, Ephemerides ans Astrometry in the Solar
system, on occation of the bicentennial of the Bureau des Longitudes,
inludes also historical papers
(Dr. Jean-Eudes Arlot, Bureau des Longitudes, 77 ave Denfert Rochereau,
F-75014 Paris, E-mail: arlot@bdl.fr)

5 - 11 August, Mexico City, Mexico
17th International Congress of History of Religions, including a symposium
on the relation between the Andean cults and the sky-lore
Chairman: Mariusz Ziolkowski, e-mail andyuw@plearn.edu.pl

20 - 22 September, Bonn, Germany
Meeting of the Driburg Circle (for students, doctoral candidates, and 
Theme: Methods in the Historiography of medicin, science and technology.
Sign up until 1 August with: Martina Lorenz, Lehrstuhl fuer 
Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg

22 - 25 September, Bonn, Germany
78th annual meeting of the German Society for the History of Medicine, 
Science and Technology. 
Theme: The differences in gender in medicine, science, and technology. 
Sign up until 31 May with: Prof. Dr. Christoph Meinel, Lehrstuhl
fuer Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg

29 September - 1 October, Debrecen, Hungary
VII. Astronomical-Historical National Conference and 3rd International
Sundial Conference. 
Central Theme: The history of the exploration of the sun and the sun's 
effects on the earth. 
(Judit Koczok, Koelcsey Mueveloedesie Koezpont, Hunyadi u. 1-3, H-4026
Debrecen, Tel.: +3652/413977, Fax: +3652/416040, E-mail:

20 - 21 October, Binghamton, New York 
CEMERS XXIX Annual Conference: Christine de Pizan: Texts/ Intertexts/
Contexts Papers may be delivered in French or English. 
Send proposals concerning astronomy, astrology, cosmology or related
topics in Christine de Pizan or 14th Century France to: A.S. Weber,
Organizer, Special Session on Cosmology, Box 217, Department of English,
Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902 - 6000, USA,
Phone: 607 - 777 - 2168, e-mail: br00126@bingsuns.cc.binghamton.edu

30 - 31 October, Nettetal (District Viersen), Germany
4. Duisburger Mercator-Symposium: The "mathematicus" - On the development 
and meaning of a new career-group in the time of Gerhard Mercator (among 
others, the theme of: The achievements of Gerhard Mercator and other 
"practical mathematicians" of the Renaissance in the areas of cartography
and astronomy, instrument building, etc. as well as their contributions to
cosmography, theology, etc.)
Languages spoken at the conference: German an English
Place: Schloss Krickenbeck
Sign up until 30th of April with: Prof. Dr. Rene Dirven,
G.-Mercator-Universitaet - GH Duisburg, Fachbereich 3, D-47048 Duisburg

Item 7                                            ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995

New Books

Bowen, Robert: Universal ice: science and ideology in the Nazi state.
London: Belhaven Press, 1993. Pp. xiv, 189, illus., ISBN 1852931906

Daxecker, Franz:  Briefe des Naturwissenschaftlers Christoph Scheiner SJ an
Erzherzog Leopold V. von Oesterreich-Tirol, 1620 - 1632. [Letters of the
natural scientists Christoph Scheiner SJ to Erzherzog Leopold V. of
Austria-Tirol, 1620 - 1632] Innsbruck, 1995. 192 pp., 4 illus., 
ISBN 3-901249-21-4, oeS 220.00 / DM 35.00

[Gilligan, Gerard John:] William Lassell. [Liverpool]: Liverpool
Astronomical Society, 1994. Pp. 27 (= North West Astronomers) 

Krautter, Joachim; Sedlmayr, Erwin; Schaifers, Karl; Traving, Gerhard:
Meyers Handbuch Weltall. 7., voellig neu bearb. u. erweit. Aufl.
Mannheim, Leipzig, Wien, Zuerich: Meyers Lexikonverlag, 1994, 
ISBN 3-411-07757-3
[pp. 615-631: Tables for the History of Astronomy]

van der Krogt, Peter: Globi Neerlandici: The production of globes in the
Low Countries.  Utrecht: HES Publishers, 1993. Pp. 647, illus., part in
colour, ISBN 90-6194-138-5, GBP 335.00 [sic]
[Weight 3.8 kg; edition limited to 1000 copies; available via Sotheby's
Books, PO Box 521, Kempston, Bedford MK42 7YY, UK]

Zeeberg, Peter: Den praktiske muse: Tycho Brahes brug af latindigtingen.
Kobenhavn: Museum Tusculanum, 1993. Pp. 55, ISBN 8772892552
(= Studier fra sprog- og oldtidsforskning, nr. 321)                        



For information we thank: 

J.-E.Arlot (Paris), L. Bartha (Budapest), P.Brosche (Bonn), J.B.Carlson
(Bladensburg, USA), F.Daxecker (Innsbruck), R.Dick (Elsterberg), LeRoy
Doggett (Washinghton), G.J.Gilligan (Liverpool), K.-D.Herbst (Jena),
S.Koge (Dresden), G.Lencer (Gotha), H.Rau (Berlin), J.Stegert (Bonn),
M.Strumpf (Gotha), G.Wolfschmidt (Muenchen), A.Zenkert (Potsdam), Archiv
der Stadt Linz.



Electronic Newsletter for the History of Astronomy (ENHA)

Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy in the
Astronomische Gesellschaft

A translation of "Elektronische Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte"

Editor: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick 

Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <76450.1741@compuserve.com>

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Addendum by the Translator / Space Calendar - July 1995

                               SPACE CALENDAR

* indicates changes from last month's calendar

July 1995
  Jul ?? - MSTI-3 Pegasus Launch
* Jul ?? - TOMS Pegasus XL Launch
  Jul 29 - Delta-Aquarids Meteor Shower
* Jul 31 - DSCS Atlas 2 Launch
  Jul 31 - Ulysses, Maximum Northern Latitude (80.22 degrees)

August 1995
* Aug ?? - STS-69, Endeavour, Wake Shield Facility (WSF-2)
* Aug ?? - Vitasat-Gemstar-1 LLV1 Launch
  Aug 01 - Alpha Capricornids Meteor Shower
* Aug 01 - PAS-3R Ariane Launch
  Aug 03 - Koreasat-1 Delta 2 Launch
* Aug 03 - Interball-Tail Molniya Launch (Russian)
  Aug 04 - Space Shuttle Express Mail Stamp, First Day of Issue, Irvine,
* Aug 04 - METEOR Conestoga Launch
* Aug 05 - Neil Armstrong's 65th Birthday (1930)
* Aug 09 - Molniya-3 Molniya Launch (Russian)
  Aug 10 - 5th Anniversary (1990), Magellan Venus Orbit Insertion
  Aug 11 - Saturn Rings Edge-On from Earth's Perspective
  Aug 12 - Perseids Meteor Shower (Potential Meteor Storm)
* Aug 15 - REX-II Pegasus XL Launch
* Aug 15 - Resurs Soyuz Launch (Russian)
* Aug 16 - JSCAT Atlas IIAS Launch
  Aug 17 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Venera 7 Launch (Venus Lander)
  Aug 18 - 10th Anniversary (1985), Suisei Launch (Halley's Comet Flyby)
  Aug 20 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Viking 1 Launch (Mars Lander/Orbiter)
  Aug 21 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Gemini 5 Launch
  Aug 22 - FAST (Fast Auroral Snapshot) XL Pegasus Launch
  Aug 23 - N-Star A Ariane Launch
  Aug 29 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #26 (TCM-26)
* Aug 30 - SICH-1/FASAT Cyclone Launch (Russian)
  Aug 31 - XTE (X-Ray Timing Explorer) Delta 2 Launch
* Aug 31 - Cosmos Proton-K Launch (Russian)

September 1995
  Sep ?? - Panamsat 4, Amos 1 Ariane Launch
* Sep 01 - Soyuz TM-22 Launch (Russian)
  Sep 06 - Progress M-30 Launch (Russian)
  Sep 09 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Viking 2 Launch (Mars Orbiter/Lander)
  Sep 11 - 10th Anniversary (1985), ICE Flyby of Comet Giacobini-Zinner
  Sep 12 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Luna 16 Launch (Moon Sample Return)
* Sep 13 - Telstar 402R Ariane 4 Launch
  Sep 14 - Saturn at Opposition
  Sep 15 - AsiaSat 2 Long March Launch (China)
  Sep 19 - Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Ariane 4 Launch
  Sep 20 - RADARSAT/SURFSAT-1 Delta-2 Launch (Canada)
  Sep 21 - STS-73, Columbia, Spacelab USML-2
  Sep 21 - Autumnal Equinox
* Sep 21 - Luch-1 Proton-K Launch (Russian)
  Sep 29 - Ulysses, End of 2nd Solar Passage (70.05 degrees latitude)
  Sep 29 - SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) XL Pegasus Launch
  Sep 30 - Ulysses, End of Primary Mission

October 1995
  Oct 06 - 5th Anniversary (1990), Ulysses Launch
  Oct 08 - Punumbral Lunar Eclipse, Visible from Asia
* Oct 08 - Workshop on Thermal Remote Sensing of Volcanoes on Io and Earth,
  Oct 09 - Draconids Meteor Shower
  Oct 11 - 50th Anniversary (1945), JPL WAC Corporal Launch (1st Man-Made
           Object to Escape Earth's Atmosphere).
  Oct 18 - Seastar Pegasus Launch
  Oct 20 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Zond 8 Launch (Russian Moon Orbit &
  Oct 22 - Orionids Meteor Shower
  Oct 22 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Venera 9 Venus Orbit Insertion & 
  Oct 24 - Solar Eclipse, Visible from Southeast Asia & Indonesia
  Oct 25 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Venera 10 Venus Orbit Insertion & 
  Oct 25 - UHF F/O 6 Atlas 2 Launch
  Oct 26 - STS-74, Atlantis, 2nd Mir Docking

November 1995
  Nov ?? - Astra 1E Ariane Launch
  Nov 01 - Echostar-1 Long March Launch (China)
  Nov 04 - Taurids Meteor Shower
  Nov 07 - SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) Atlas-2AS Launch
  Nov 09 - Galileo, Jupiter Approach Global Image
  Nov 10 - Priroda Module Launch (Russian)
  Nov 10 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Luna 17 Launch (Russian Moon Rover)
  Nov 12 - 15th Anniversary (1980), Voyager 1, Saturn Flyby
  Nov 17 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #27 (TCM-27)
  Nov 17 - Leonids Meteor Shower
  Nov 18 - Saturn Rings Edge-On to the Sun, No Shadow
  Nov 22 - Progress M-31 Launch (Russian)
  Nov 23 - Asteroid 1993 WD, Near-Earth Flyby (0.1789 AU)
  Nov 27 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #28 (TCM-28)
  Nov 30 - STS-72, Endeavour, Space Flyer Unit Retrieval

December 1995
  Dec ?? - P91-1/Argos Delta-2 Launch
  Dec ?? - LIFESAT-03 Launch
  Dec ?? - Data Relay Satellite Launch (ESA)
  Dec ?? - Telecom 2C Ariane Launch
  Dec ?? - Koreasat-2 Delta 2 Launch
  Dec ?? - Inmarsat-3 Atlas 2A Launch
  Dec ?? - Pioneer 11, End of Mission?
  Dec 02 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #28A (TCM-28A)
  Dec 04 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Gemini 7 Launch
  Dec 07 - Galileo, Io Gravity Assist
  Dec 08 - Galileo, Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI), 12:23 AM UTC
  Dec 08 - 5th Anniversary (1990), Galileo Earth-1 Flyby
  Dec 09 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #1 (OTM-1)
  Dec 12 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Explorer 42 Launch, 1st Orbiting X-Ray
           Astronomy Platform
  Dec 13 - Geminids Meteor Shower
  Dec 15 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Gemini 6 Launch
  Dec 15 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Venera 7, Venus landing
  Dec 16 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Pioneer 6 Launch
  Dec 19 - Galileo, Solar Conjunction
  Dec 19 - POLAR Delta Launch
  Dec 21 - Winter Solstice
  Dec 22 - Ursids Meteor Shower
  Dec 25 - Soyuz TM-23 Launch (Russian)
  Dec 29 - NOAA-K Titan 2 Launch

January 1996
  Jan ?? - VSOP Launch
  Jan 01 - 195th Anniversary (1801), Discovery of the First Asteroid 
           (Ceres) by Piazzi
  Jan 02 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #2 (OTM-2)
  Jan 03 - Quadrantids Meteor Shower
  Jan 15 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Helios-2 Launch (Solar Orbiter)
  Jan 17 - Cluster Ariane 5 Launch (ESA/NASA)
  Jan 18 - Asteroid 1992 QN Near-Earth Flyby (0.1588 AU)
  Jan 24 - Asteroid Aten Near-Earth Flyby (0.2234 AU)
  Jan 24 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Voyager 2 Uranus Flyby
  Jan 28 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion
  Jan 31 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Apollo 14 Launch
  Jan 31 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 9 Launch (Russian Moon Lander)

February 1996
  Feb ?? - MSX Delta 2 Launch
  Feb 01 - ADEOS/NSCAT Launch
  Feb 04 - Clyde Tombaugh's 90th Birthday (1906)
  Feb 04 - Comet Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova Near-Earth Flyby (0.1702 AU)
  Feb 11 - Saturn, Rings Edge-On from Earth's Perspective
  Feb 14 - Chiron, Perihelion
  Feb 15 - STS-75, Columbia, Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R)
  Feb 16 - NEAR Delta 2 Launch (Asteroid Eros Orbiter)
  Feb 19 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Mir Space Station Launch (Russian)
  Feb 22 - Venus/Moon Occultation, Visible from Hawaii

March 1996
  Mar ?? - Astra 1F Proton Launch (Russian)
  Mar 01 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Venera 3 Impact on Venus
  Mar 04 - 215th Anniversary (1781), Herschel's Discovery of Uranus
  Mar 06 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Vega 1, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 08 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Suisei, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 09 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Vega 2, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 11 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Sakigake, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 13 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Giotto, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 16 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 8 Launch
  Mar 21 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #3 (OTM-3)
  Mar 21 - STS-76, Atlantis, 3rd Shuttle-Mir Mission, SPACEHAB
  Mar 28 - 10th Anniversary (1986), ICE, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 31 - Asteroid 1990 VA, Near-Earth Flyby (0.2253 AU)
  Mar 31 - Asteroid Bacchus, Near-Earth Flyby (0.0678 AU)
  Mar 31 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 10 Launch, 1st Moon Orbiter

April 1996
  Apr 3-4 - Lunar Eclipse
  Apr 03 - ARD Ariane Launch
  Apr 12 - 35th Anniversary (1961), 1st Man in Space, Yuri Gagarin
  Apr 12 - 15th Annivesrary (1981), 1st Space Shuttle Launch, Columbia, 
  Apr 17 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Helios-2 Perihelion (.29 AU from Sun)
  Apr 17 - Partial Solar Eclipse, Visible from New Zealand
  Apr 19 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Salyut 1 Launch, 1st Space Station
  Apr 20 - Lyrids Meteor Shower
  Apr 25 - STS-77, Endeavour, SPACEHAB-4

May 1996
  May 01 - 35th Anniversary (1961), 1st US Man in Space, Alan Shephard
  May 11 - 80th Anniversary (1916), Albert Einstein's General Theory of
  May 14 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #4 (OTM-4)
  May 18 - Asteroid 1991 JR, Near-Earth Flyby (0.1087 AU)
  May 19 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 2 Launch (Russian Mars
  May 25 - 35th Anniversary (1961), John F. Kennedy's Moon Goal Speech
  May 28 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 3 Launch (Russian Mars
  May 29 - Ariane-502 Launch
  May 30 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mariner 9 Launch (Mars Orbiter)
  May 30 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Surveyor 1 Launch (Moon Soft Lander)

June 1996
  Jun ?? - LIFESAT-04 Delta 2 Launch
  Jun ?? - SMEX-07 Launch
  Jun ?? - NOAA-L Launch
  Jun 03 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 9 Launch
  Jun 04 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #5 (OTM-5)
  Jun 11 - Asteroid Icarus Near-Earth Flyby (0.1012 AU)
  Jun 16 - Asteroid 1990MU Near-Earth Flyby (0.2499 AU)
  Jun 27 - STS-78, Columbia, Life & Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

July 1996
* Jul ?? - NOAA-M Titan 2 Launch
* Jul 01 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #6 (OTM-6)
* Jul 04 - Galileo, 1st Ganymede Flyby (Orbit 1)
* Jul 09 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #7 (OTM-7)
* Jul 18 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 10 Launch
* Jul 20 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Viking 1 Mars Landing
* Jul 21 - 35th Anniversary (1961), Mercury 4 Launch
* Jul 26 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Apollo 15 Launch

      ___    _____     ___
     /_ /|  /____/ \  /_ /|     Ron Baalke         |
     | | | |  __ \ /| | | |     Jet Propulsion Lab |
  ___| | | | |__) |/  | | |__   Galileo S-Band     | Good happens.
 /___| | | |  ___/    | |/__ /| Pasadena, CA       |
 |_____|/  |_|/       |_____|/                     |


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